# Chemistry - Khan Academy

Videos on chemistry (roughly covering a first-year high school or college course).

## Lessons hide description |
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## 1) Elements and Atoms## How elements relate to atoms. The basics of how protons, electrons and neutrons make up an atom. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=IFKnq |

## 2) Introduction to the atom## The atom, proton, neutron and electron More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=1xSQl |

## 3) Orbitals## An introduction to orbitals More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=yBrp8 |

## 4) More on orbitals and electron configuration## More intuition on orbitals. Touching on electron configuration. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=FmQoS |

## 5) Electron Configurations## Introduction to using the periodic table to determine electron configurations |

## 6) Electron Configurations 2## Figuring out configurations for the d-block elements More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=YURRe |

## 7) Valence Electrons## Looking at valence electrons to figure out reactivity More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=1TZA1 |

## 8) Groups of the Periodic Table## Properties of alkali, alkaline earth and transition metals. Halogens and noble gases. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=LDHg7 |

## 9) Periodic Table Trends: Ionization Energy## What an ion is. Using the periodic table to understand how difficult it is to ionize an atom. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=ywqg9 |

## 10) Other Periodic Table Trends## Electronegativity, metallic nature and atomic radius. |

## 11) Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonds## Introduction to ionic, covalent, polar covalent and metallic bonds. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=CGA8s |

## 12) Molecular and Empirical Formulas## Introduction to molecular and empirical formulas. Calculating molecular mass. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=gfBcM |

## 13) The Mole and Avogadro's Number## Introduction to the idea of a mole as a number (vs. an animal) More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=AsqEk |

## 14) Formula from Mass Composition## Figuring out the empirical formula from a molecules mass composition |

## 15) Another mass composition problem## Another exercise converting a mass composition to an empirical formula. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=sXOII |

## 16) Balancing Chemical Equations## The art of balancing equations in chemistry! More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=RnGu3 |

## 17) Stoichiometry## Introduction to stoichiometry More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=SjQG3 |

## 18) Stoichiometry: Limiting Reagent## Stoichiometry problem where we have a limiting reagent! More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=rESzy |

## 19) Ideal Gas Equation: PV=nRT## Intuition behind the ideal gas equation: PV=nRT. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=WScwP |

## 20) Ideal Gas Equation Example 1## Figuring out the number of moles of gas we have using the ideal gas equation: PV=nRT. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=erjMi |

## 21) Ideal Gas Equation Example 2## PV/T is a constant. Figuring out the volume of an ideal gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP). More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=GwoX_ |

## 22) Ideal Gas Equation Example 3## Figuring out the mass of Oxygen we have. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=69V-6 |

## 23) Ideal Gas Example 4## Figuring out the molar mass of a mystery molecule at STP. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Osl6H |

## 24) Partial Pressure## Figuring out the partial pressures of various gases in a container. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=d4bqN |

## 25) States of Matter## Introduction to the states or phases of matter. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=pKvo0 |

## 26) States of Matter Follow-Up## More on Plasma and Hydrogen bonds. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Wenwt |

## 27) Specific Heat, Heat of Fusion and Vaporization## Specifict heat and phase changes: Calculating how much heat is needed to convert 200g of ice at -10C to 110 degree steam. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=zz4Kb |

## 28) Chilling Water Problem## How much ice at -10 degrees C is necessary to get 500g of water down to 0 degrees C? More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=lsXcK |

## 29) Phase Diagrams## Understanding and interpreting phase diagrams More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Qp87Z |

## 30) Van Der Waals Forces## Van Der Waals Forces: London Dispersion Forces, Dipole Attractions, and Hydrogen Bonds. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=8qfzp |

## 31) Covalent Networks, Metallic, and Ionic Crystals## Covalent Networks, Metallic, and Ionic Crystals: Some of the strongest molecular structures. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Rw_pD |

## 32) Vapor Pressure## Vapor Pressure, Volatility, and Evaporation More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=hA5jd |

## 33) Suspensions, Colloids and Solutions## Suspensions, Colloids and Solutions. The difference between Molarity and Molality. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=3ROWX |

## 34) Solubility## Solubility of salt and gas solutes in liquid solvent. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=zjIVJ |

## 35) Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Supression## Raising or lowering the boiling or freezing point of a solution by adding solute. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=z9Lxd |

## 36) Introduction to Kinetics## Kinetics, activation energy, activated complex and catalysts. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=__zy- |

## 37) Reactions in Equilibrium## Equilibrium reactions and constants. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=CGJjj |

## 38) Mini-Video on Ion Size## Correcting a mistake and learning a bit about ion size More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=HBi8x |

## 39) Keq Intuition (mathy and not necessary to progress)## A probabilistic look at how molecules react to develop the intuition behind the equilibrium constant formula. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=ONBJo |

## 40) Keq derivation intuition (can skip; bit mathy)## A more concrete attempt at showing how the probabilities of molecules reacting is related to their concentration. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=psLX0 |

## 41) Heterogenous Equilibrium## Ignoring the solution or the solid state molecules when calculating the equilibrium constant. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=TsXlT |

## 42) Le Chatelier's Principle## Le Chatelier's Principle regarding the "stressing" of reactions in equilibrium More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=4-fEv |

## 43) Introduction to pH, pOH, and pKw## Autoionization of water into hydronium and hydroxide ions. pH, pOH, and pKa. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=2q4vS |

## 44) Acid Base Introduction## Arrhenius, Bronsted Lowry, and Lewis Acids and Bases. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=vShCn |

## 45) pH, pOH of Strong Acids and Bases## Calculating the pH or pOH of strong acids and bases. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=tS2YJ |

## 46) pH of a Weak Acid## Calculating the pH of a weak acid More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=dencu |

## 47) pH of a Weak Base## pH of .2 M of NH3 (weak base). More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=gDJtO |

## 48) Conjugate Acids and Bases## Introduction to conjugate acids and bases More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=0LM6w |

## 49) pKa and pKb Relationship## The pKa and pKb relationship between conjugate acids and bases (both of which are weak). More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=3Gm4n |

## 50) Buffers and Hendersen-Hasselbalch## Buffers and the Hendersen-Hasselbalch equation More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=LJmFb |

## 51) Strong Acid Titration## Strong acid titration and equivalence point More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=299o6 |

## 52) Weak Acid Titration## Equivalence point when titrating a weak acid More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=gbpc_ |

## 53) Titration Roundup## Making sure you fully understand titration curves More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=BBIGR |

## 54) Introduction to Oxidation States## Oxidation and reduction. Oxidation states. |

## 55) More on Oxidation States## More practice calculating oxidation states |

## 56) Hydrogen Peroxide Correction## Correcting an error in the last video regarding hydrogen peroxide. |

## 57) Redox Reactions## Oxidation reduction (or redox) reactions |

## 58) Galvanic Cells## Redox reactions to drive Galvanic Cells. |

## 59) Types of Decay## Alpha, Beta, Gamma Decay and Positron Emission More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=3koOw |

## 60) Half-Life## Introduction to half-life More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=9REPn |

## 61) Exponential Decay Formula Proof (can skip, involves Calculus)## Showing that N(t)=Ne^(-kt) describes the amount of a radioactive substance we have at time T. For students with background in Calculus. Not necessary for intro chemistry class. More free lessons at ... |

## 62) Introduction to Exponential Decay## Introduction to Exponential Decay More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=HTDop |

## 63) More Exponential Decay Examples## A few more examples of exponential decay. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Hqzak |

## 64) Macrostates and Microstates## The difference between macrostates and microstates. Thermodynamic equilibrium. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=5EU-y |

## 65) Quasistatic and Reversible Processes## Using theoretically quasi-static and/or reversible processes to stay pretty much at equilibrium. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=lKq-1 |

## 66) First Law of Thermodynamics/ Internal Energy## First law of thermodynamic and Internal Energy More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Xb05C |

## 67) More on Internal Energy## Getting more intuition of internal energy, heat, and work More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=aOSlX |

## 68) Work from Expansion## How a system can do work by expanding More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=obeGV |

## 69) PV-diagrams and Expansion Work## Why work from expansion is the area under the curve of a PV-diagram More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=M5uOI |

## 70) Proof: U=(3/2)PV or U=(3/2)nRT## Conceptual proof that the internal energy of an ideal gas system is 3/2 PV. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=qSFY7 |

## 71) Work Done by Isothermic Process## Isothermic and Adiabatic processes. Calculating the work done by an isothermic process. Seeing that it is the same as the heat added. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=iiFWo ... |

## 72) Carnot Cycle and Carnot Engine## Introduction to the Carnot Cycle and Carnot Heat Engine More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=aAfBS |

## 73) Proof: Volume Ratios in a Carnot Cycle## Proof of the volume ratios in a Carnot Cycle More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=ixRtS |

## 74) Proof: S (or Entropy) is a valid state variable## Prroof that S (or entropy) is a valid state variable. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=sPz5R |

## 75) Thermodynamic Entropy Definition Clarification## Clarifying that the thermodynamic definition of Entropy requires a reversible system. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=PFcGi |

## 76) Reconciling Thermodynamic and State Definitions of Entropy## Long video explaining why entropy is a measure of the number of states a system can take on (mathy, but mind-blowing). More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=WLKEV |

## 77) Entropy Intuition## A discussion of what entropy is and what it isn't. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=xJf6p |

## 78) Maxwell's Demon## Maxwell's Demon: A thought experiment that seems to defy the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=aKRDv |

## 79) More on Entropy## More clarification as to what entropy is and what entropy is not. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=dFFzA |

## 80) Efficiency of a Carnot Engine## Definition of efficiency for a heat engine. Efficiency of a Carnot Engine. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=M_5KY |

## 81) Carnot Efficiency 2: Reversing the Cycle## Seeing how we can scale and or reverse a Carnot Engine (to make a refrigerator) More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=pQWwP |

## 82) Carnot Efficiency 3: Proving that it is the most efficient## Proving that a Carnot Engine is the most efficient engine More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=LUoUb |

## 83) Enthalpy## Understanding why enthalpy can be viewed as "heat content" in a constant pressure system. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=fucyI |

## 84) Heat of Formation## Standard heat of formation or standard enthalpy change of formation. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=PK_JX |

## 85) Hess's Law and Reaction Enthalpy Change## Using Hess's Law and standard heats of formation to determine the enthalpy change for reactions More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=chXMp |

## 86) Gibbs Free Energy and Spontaneity## Intuition behind why spontaneity is driven by enthalpy, entropy and temperature. Introduction to Gibbs free energy. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=ViAmQ |

## 87) Gibbs Free Energy Example## Determining if a reaction is spontaneous by calculating the change in Gibbs Free Energy. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=sG1ZA |

## 88) More rigorous Gibbs Free Energy/ Spontaneity Relationship## More formal understanding of why a negative change in Gibbs Free Energy implies a spontaneous, irreversible reaction. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=7aur5 |

## 89) A look at a seductive but wrong Gibbs/Spontaneity Proof## A look at why the "proof" of the relation between changes in Gibbs Free Energy and Spontaneity is wrong in many textbooks. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=yYbzJ |

## 90) Stoichiometry Example Problem 1## Figuring grams of reactants and product produced from reaction of phosphorous and chlorine More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=jFv6k |

## 91) Stoichiometry Example Problem 2## Stoichiometry Example Problem 2 More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=eQf_E |

## 92) Limiting Reactant Example Problem 1## Limiting Reactant Example Problem 1 |

## 93) Empirical and Molecular Formulas from Stoichiometry## Empirical and Molecular Formulas from Stoichiometry More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=FycJ8 |

## 94) Example of Finding Reactant Empirical Formula## Example of Finding Reactant Empirical Formula More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=66ziU |

## 95) Stoichiometry of a Reaction in Solution## Stoichiometry of a Reaction in Solution More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=EKZSw |

## 96) Another Stoichiometry Example in a Solution## Another Stoichiometry Example in a Solution More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=_qrQK |

## 97) Molecular and Empirical Forumlas from Percent Composition## Molecular and Empirical Forumlas from Percent Composition. Example 2.9 from Kotz Chemistry book More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=_H009 |

## 98) Acid Base Titration## Using acid-base titration to find mass of oxalic acid More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=XjFNm |

## 99) Spectrophotometry Introduction## Spectrophotometry, Transmittance, Absorbance and the Beer-Lambert Law More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=qbCZb |

## 100) Spectrophotometry Example## Spectrophotometry Example - Determining concentration based on absorbance More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=VqAa_ |

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